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The research in this presentation reports on real-time longitudinal intra-individual data collected in mathematics and English lessons, every school day, across four school weeks. A total of 113 boys and girls in Year 7 from two Australian schools participated.

Using mobile technology (e.g., smart phones, laptops, tablets) to capture intra-individual real-time data, a four-level model was explored, consisting of between-lesson (within-day) ratings at the first level (up to 2 lessons per day), between-day ratings at the second level (5 days per week), between-week ratings at the third level (4 weeks), and between-student ratings at the fourth level (thus, 40 possible time points per student). Multilevel modeling showed substantial between-lesson (within-day) variability in motivation and engagement (M = 34%) and substantial between-student variability (M = 62%). There was not so much variability between days (M = 2%) or between weeks (M = 2%).

We propose the study offers insights for motivation and engagement theorizing (particularly around stability and developmental issues) and technological and logistic guidance for collecting real-time data. Furthermore, these findings derived from boys and girls in two schools replicate those from a previous study (also discussed in this presentation) conducted among a small sample of boys.

The findings again show that every minute of every day for every student matters. To the extent that this is the case, there are policy implications for daily school timetabling, teacher training to better support motivation and engagement through the school day, and the use of mobile technology to monitor students and enable responsive pedagogy and intervention in real-time.


Andrew Martin, PhD, is Scientia Professor and Professor of Educational Psychology in the School of Education at the University of New South Wales, Australia specializing in motivation, engagement, achievement, and quantitative research methods.

He is also Honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Education at the University of Oxford, Honorary Professor in the Faculty of Education and Social Work at the University of Sydney, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, Fellow of the American Educational Research Association, Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, and President of the International Association of Applied Psychology’s Division 5 Educational, Instructional, and School Psychology. 

Event details
When: Wednesday 26 April, 11:30 am - 1pm
Where: Room 612, Education Building A35
Brown Bag: Attendees are welcome to bring their own lunch

About the Blog

Research by the University's Centre for Research on Learning and Innovation (CRLI).