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This is the title of my chapter written late last year for the 2nd edition of Matthias Reimann and Reinhard Zimmermann (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law (OUP, 2018). It substitutes for, but respectfully builds on several aspects of, the Japan-focused chapter in the Oxford Handook's first edition by the late Prof Zentaro Kitagawa entitled "Development of Comparative Law in East Asia".

Below I reproduce introductory Part I and the Table of Contents for my chapter manuscript, a version of which will be presented with ENS-Lyon Prof Beatrice Jazulot as an ANJeL Visitor in early July 2018, at the biannual Asian Studies Association of Australia conference hosted by USydney. Then I reproduce useful references on comparative law generally in Japan, from pp177-81 of Baum/Nottage/Rheuben/Thier, Japanese Business Law in Western Languages: An Annotated Selective Bibliography (Hein, 2nd ed 2013).

Japan has a long and successful history of carefully investigating and adapting foreign laws to build up its own legal system. In addition, Japan has also exported its law, through colonisation in North Asia in the first half of the 20th century, and through legal technical assistance especially in Southeast Asia since the 21st century (as explained further in Part II). Comparative law research continues to be a cornerstone for most law reform projects in Japan, with academics playing significant roles, although law reform processes have become more complex especially over the last two decades (Part III).

Japanese law has also impacted on comparative lawyers from abroad, beginning from the 1960s when Japan’s economy boomed, and continuing from the 1990s as economic stagnation engendered a raft of law reforms. This has generated a sophisticated comparative law literature and practice for Japan (as outlined in Part IV). In turn, methodological insights have also influenced contemporary comparative law research into other Asian legal systems.

Despite the strong tradition of comparative law within Japan, reinforced by innovative approaches developed as outside observers have sought to compare Japanese law, challenges arise particularly for comparative law studies within Japan. The main concern is persistent pressure on legal academia despite – or perhaps because of – major reforms to Japan’s legal education system introduced in 2004, and linked to an ambitious justice system reform program (Part V).

I. Introduction
II. History Matters
1. Importing Foreign and Comparative Law into Japan
2. Exporting Japanese Law
III. Comparative Law in Action in Contemporary Japan
1. Consumer and Civil Law Amendments
2. Gradual Transformation in Corporate Law and Practice
3. Justice System Reform
IV. Comparing and Assessing Japanese Law
1. Five Theories of Law: From Civil Dispute Resolution Studies
2. Five Methodological Lessons: From Corporate Governance Studies
V. Conclusions and Implications
Selective Bibliography

Useful references from pp177-81 of Baum/Nottage/Rheuben/Thier, Japanese Business Law in Western Languages: An Annotated Selective Bibliography (Hein, 2nd ed 2013).

2. Comparative Law, Uniform Law

Books/Longer Monographs
CHOMCHAI, PRACHOOM (ed.), Development of Legal Systems in Asia:
Experience of Japan and Thailand (Bangkok: Faculty of Law,
Thammasat University, 1998) 388p.
INSTITUTE OF COMPARATIVE LAW IN JAPAN (ed.), Future of Comparative
Study in Law: The 60th Anniversary of the Institute of Comparative
Law in Japan, Chuo University (Tokyo: Chuo University
Press, 2011) 1023p.
KITAMURA, ICHIRO, Problems of the Translation of Law in Japanese:
Victoria University of Wellington Law Review monograph No 7
(Wellington: Victoria University, 1993) 40p.
MERRYMAN, JOHN, DAVID CLARK & JOHN O. HALEY, The Civil Law
Tradition: Europe, Latin America, and East Asia (Charlottesville
VA: Michie, 1994) 1278p.
NAKAJIMA, CHIZU, Conflicts of Interest and Duty: A Comparative
Analysis in Anglo-Japanese Law (The Hague: Kluwer Law International,
1999) 316p.

Articles/Book Chapters/Shorter Monographs
ATSUSHI, KAMIKI, “Comparing the Civil Codes and the Codes of Civil
Procedure across Borders: The Cases of Japan and Cambodia,” in:
CAMBODIAN SOCIETY OF COMPARATIVE LAW, Cambodian Yearbook
of Comparative Legal Studies: Volume 1 (Hong Kong: IL
Virtue Unions, 2010) 37–52.
BAUM, HARALD, Rechtsdenken, Rechtssystem und Rechtswirklichkeit in
Japan: Rechtsvergleichung mit Japan, in: Rabels Zeitschrift für
ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht 59 (1995) 258–292.
BAUM, HARALD, “Rechtsvergleichung und Recht in Japan,” in: BÄLZ,
MORITZ, HARALD BAUM & SANDRA SCHUH (eds.), Summer School
Japanisches Recht (Köln: Carl Heymanns, 2011); Special Issue No.
4 of the Journal of Japanese Law, forthcoming.
FELDMAN, ERIC A., Law across Borders: What Can the United States
Learn from Japan, in: Hastings International and Comparative Law
Review 32 (2009) 795–802.
FOOTE, DANIEL H., The Role of Comparative Law (Inaugural Lecture for
Henderson Professorship), in: Washington Law Review 73 (1998)
25–39.
GINSBURG, TOM, Studying Japanese Law Because It’s There, in:
American Journal of Comparative Law 58 (2010) 15–26.
HALEY, JOHN O., Educating Lawyers for the Global Economy, in:
Michigan Journal of International Law 17 (1996) 733–746.
HALEY, JOHN O., Why Study Japanese Law?, in: The American Journal
of Comparative Law 58 (2010) 1–14
HAYASHI, TOMOYOSHI, Roman Law Studies and the Civil Code in
Modern Japan: System, Ownership, and Co-Ownership, in: Osaka
University Law Review 55 (2008) 15–26.
HENDERSON, DAN FENNO, “Japanese Influences on Communist Chinese
Legal Terms,” in: COHEN, JEROME ALAN (ed.), Contemporary
Chinese Law: Research Problems and Perspectives (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press, 1970) 158–187.
HENDERSON, DAN FENNO, The Japanese Law in English: Some Thoughts
on Scope and Method, in: Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law
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HENDERSON, DAN FENNO, The Interface between Japanese and
American Law, in: Kanto Gakuin Law Review 1 (1991) 1–15.
HENDERSON, DAN FENNO, “Some Developments in Japan’s Transnational
Law,” in: CRANSTON, ROSS & ROYSTON MILES GOODE
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KANEKO, YUKA, “Accompanying Legal Transformation: Japanese
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(ed.), Japanese Reports for the XVIIIth International Congress of
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and Politics, Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo, 2011) 3–38.
KITAGAWA, ZENTARO, “Von der Japanisierung zur Entjapanisierung,”
in: COING, HELMUT, et al. (eds.), Die Japanisierung des westlichen
Rechts (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1990) 441–446.
Part III.D. Conflict of Laws, Comparative and Uniform Law 179
KITAGAWA, ZENTARO, “Development of Comparative Law in East Asia,”
in: ZIMMERMANN, REINHARD (ed.), The Oxford handbook of
comparative law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) 237–301.
KITAMURA, ICHIRO, Cultures différentes, enseignement et recherche en
droit comparé: brèves reflexions sur la méthode de comparison
franco-japonaise, in: Revue internationale de droit comparé 47
(1995) 861–869.
KITAMURA, ICHIRO (translation by ANDREA ORTOLANI) La cultura
giuridica giapponese ed il problema della traduzione, in: Materiali
per una storia della cultura giuridica 2 (2003) 359–405.
KOZUKA, SOUCHIROU, “The Economic Implications of Uniformity in
Law,” in: BASEDOW, JÜRGEN & TOSHIYUKI KONO (eds.), An
Economic Analysis of Private International Law (Tübingen: Mohr
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MARFORDING, ANNETTE, “The Fallacy of the Classification of Legal
Systems: Japan Examined,” in: TAYLOR, VERONICA (ed.), Asian
Law through Australian Eyes (Sydney, NSW: LBC Information
Services, 1997) 65–89.
MIKAZUKI, AKIRA, Zum deutsch-japanischen Wissenschaftsaustausch
auf dem Gebiet der Rechtswissenschaft, in: Juristenzeitung (1990)
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MORISHITA, TETSUO, “Complexity of Transnational Law in Japan,” in:
ICCLP (ed.), Japanese Reports for the XVIIIth International Congress
of Comparative Law (Tokyo: International Center for Comparative
Law and Politics, Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo, 2011)
39–49.
MÜLLER-FREIENFELS, WOLFRAM, “Japanisierung westlichen Rechts
oder Verwestlichung japanischen Rechts?,” in: COING, HELMUT, et
al. (eds.), Die Japanisierung des westlichen Rechts (Tübingen:
Mohr Siebeck, 1990) 177–202.
NEWHOUSE, ADAM & TSUNEYOSHI TANAKA, CISG – A Tool for Globalization
(1): American and Japanese Perspectives, in: Ristumeikan
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NISHINO, KIICHI, “The Use of Foreign Law by Courts in Japan,” in:
ICCLP (ed.), Japanese Reports for the XVIth International Congress
of Comparative Law (Tokyo: International Center for
180 Part III. Individual Works: Selective Bibliography 1970–2012
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Japanisierung als Vorgang und als Ergebnis,” in: COING, HELMUT,
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Law 12 (2001) 17–21.
NOTTAGE, LUKE, Comparative Law, Asian Law, and Japanese law, in:
Zeitschrift für Japanisches Recht/Journal of Japanese Law 15
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SAKURADA, YOSHIAKI, “Europäische Rechtsangleichung aus japanischer
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aus der Sicht des Rechts (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1994) 111–118.
SANDERS, ANNE, Die japanische Rezeption europäischen Zivilrechts: Ein
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SHINYO, TAKAHIRO, “100 Jahre juristischer Austausch zwischen Japan
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und des Unternehmensrechts im deutsch-japanischen Rechtsverkehr
(Köln: Carl Heymanns, 2012); Special Issue No. 5 of the Journal of
Japanese Law, 1–8.
TAKAKUWA, AKIRA, “Interpretation of International Maritime Conventions
in Civil and Common Law,” in: ICCLP (ed.), Japanese
Reports for the XIIIth International Congress of Comparative Law
(Tokyo: International Center for Comparative Law and Politics,
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Part III.E. Civil Law 181
THORNTON, SEAN, An Examination of the Compatibility and
Effectiveness of the Foreign Legal Systems Partially Adopted in
Japan, in: LAWASIA Journal 1999 (1999) 84–97.
UEMURA, TATSUO, “Japan als Land des Rechtsvergleichs: Die Problemstellung
der Forschungsgruppe ‘Creating a New Corporate Legal
Framework for a Mature Civil Society’,” in: KÜPPER, HERBERT &
WOLFGANG BRENN (eds.), Rechtstransfer und internationale
rechtliche Zusammenarbeit: deutsche und japanische Erfahrungen
bei der Kooperation mit Osteuropa und Zentralasien (Frankfurt am
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American Law Schools, in: HARDACRE, HELEN (ed.), The Postwar
Developments of Japanese Studies in the United States (Leiden:
Koninklijke Brill, 1998) 354–86.
VANOVERBEKE, DIMITRI, Japanese Law in the Low Countries and
France: A Brief Outline of Changing Perceptions in a Changing
World, in: Zeitschrift für Japanisches Recht/Journal of Japanese
Law 12 (2001) 22–26.
YASUDA, NOBUYUKI, “The Evolution of the East Asian Law Region,” in:
KROESCHELL, KARL, et al. (eds.), Vom nationalen zum transnationalen
Recht (Heidelberg: C. F. Müller, 1995) 279–296.

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Japanese Law in Asia-Pacific Socio-Economic Context
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