business learning training articles new learning business training opportunities finance learning training deposit money learning making training art loan learning training deposits make learning your training home good income learning outcome training issue medicine learning training drugs market learning money training trends self learning roof training repairing market learning training online secure skin learning training tools wedding learning training jewellery newspaper learning for training magazine geo learning training places business learning training design Car learning and training Jips production learning training business ladies learning cosmetics training sector sport learning and training fat burn vat learning insurance training price fitness learning training program furniture learning at training home which learning insurance training firms new learning devoloping training technology healthy learning training nutrition dress learning training up company learning training income insurance learning and training life dream learning training home create learning new training business individual learning loan training form cooking learning training ingredients which learning firms training is good choosing learning most training efficient business comment learning on training goods technology learning training business secret learning of training business company learning training redirects credits learning in training business guide learning for training business cheap learning insurance training tips selling learning training abroad protein learning training diets improve learning your training home security learning training importance

Blog home

Guest blogger


As an astrophysicist, Professor Geraint Lewis lives and breathes science. Much of what he reads and hears is couched in the language of science which to outsiders can seem little more than jargon and gibberish. But one word is rarely spoken or printed in science and that word is “proof”. In fact, science has little to do with “proving” anything.

Read Geraints full article first published in the Conversation here


Written by Jonathon Leonard

A group of scientists in France have approached the problem of the age of the moon at a whole different angle and have totally changed our previous estimates of its age. The study was published in the prestigious journal Nature​ and has received a fair bit of media attention. They team used computer simulation to re-estimate the timing of the huge celestial collision between Earth and a Mars sized body that created the moon.

Giant impact, Credit: Wikipedia Before we get into the details of the study, let's first have some background information.

At some stage after the formation of the solar system (called the condensation of solids), there was a huge collision with Earth by a body similar to the size of Mars. This collision significantly changed the structure of Earth's mantle and core as well as causing the formation of the moon by a large chunk flying off post-collision.

Before this study, all attempts to date this huge collision were done using dating from radioactive elements. Much of these dates of collision were between 30 and 50 million years after condensation of solids in the solar system (that is, the formation of the solar system). However, this team of scientists took an entirely different approach to dating the moon-forming impact. They used a series of computer simulations that predicted the formation of the solar system.

The computer simulations initially used classical ideas on the early solar system, such as similar orbits of the planets as they have today and a large area of matter around the sun that contained all the building blocks of the solar system. However they found this simulation had problems. For example, the sizes of Mars were all wrong.

Instead the scientists changed the initial conditions so that the disk of matter around the sun that contained the building blocks of the universe was much smaller. After a few adjustments, they achieved simulations of our solar system similar to our current system.

Yet even after making these successful simulations, there were still a range of viable simulations that predicted a moon forming collision at a wide range of dates. So which predictions are more likely to be right? Well to do this, the group of scientists measured the abundance of a group of elements in the mantle that are high siderophile (which means easily dissolve into iron). During the huge moon-forming impact, these elements should pretty much all have sunk into the mantle since they dissolve into iron so easily. Thus the presence of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) that aren't in the core must be from after the impact, called late accreted mass. By comparing the amount of HSEs in the mantle to those we find in meteorites that have a similar composition to the early Earth, we can take a good guess at how much late accreted mass the Earth has gained.

Now comes the fun part. The scientists compared the late accreted mass measured on Earth to the values predicted in the simulations. The values where the simulations consistently agree with our measured values (within an acceptable uncertainty) was between 67 and 126 million years after the formation of the solar system. In fact, out of the large number of different simulations, not one had the correct late accreted mass that had an impact earlier than 48 million years after the formation of the solar system. The scientists estimated that there is only a 0.1% chance that the big impact occurred before 40 million years after condensation, a huge result considering this was smack bang in the middle of many previous predictions.

So what does this result mean?

Well firstly, it means that the moon formed much later than we previously expected. It also means that the disk of matter that revolved around the early sun and contained all the building blocks of the planets has a much smaller area than previous thought. Finally the wrong radio dating figures could mean that these figures may have come from elements before the collision, meaning that the moon-forming impact didn't totally reset the mantle as previously thought.

Perhaps the biggest lesson from this study should be that to solve a problem in science, it is often useful to look at it from a completely different perspective. This is where Einstein achieved much of his genius (look up the Equivalence Principle from General Relativity for example). Those successful in science (and life!) aren't necessarily the most intelligent, but the most creative and willing to look outside the box for a solution.

Read the full article here:


Thanks to Alice Poppleton for this post. For more from Alice, see her blog at Physica Mechanica

Word of the day: Massive

There are many words which take a very different meaning in their scientific context to what they might mean in everyday use.

One which always amuses me a little is “massive”.

Normally, when you call something massive, you mean it’s really rather large. You might look at me in bemusement if I call an electron “massive”. You may wonder what on earth an electron is big compared to. (The answer to that is: nothing, really. The electron is generally considered to be a point particle.)

What I actually mean is that the electron has mass. An electron is massive. An atom is You are massive. A photon is massless.

Massive: it doesn’t have to be big, it just has to have a non-zero mass.